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Population and Demography

Luxembourg’s population exceeds 602.500 people (as of 1 January 2018), including nearly 46% without a Luxembourg passport , and that proportion exceeds 68% in the capital. The majority of foreigners are nationals of member states of the European Union.

By virtue of the composition of its population, Luxembourg thus differs greatly from the other countries of Europe.

As other countries in the industrialised world, Luxembourg is confronted by the phenomenon of general aging of the population, a phenomenon associated with profound social upheaval. The average age of people living in Luxembourg is constantly increasing.

In Luxembourg, lifestyles are changing at a pace comparable to that in surrounding countries: youth is becoming more international in its outlook, religion plays a less important role and family lifestyles are adjusting to new social and population trends.

Since the beginning of the industrialisation around 1870, Luxembourg has witnessed strong population growth.

This can largely be explained by steady immigration since the late 19th century. In 1900, Luxembourg had nearly 200,000 inhabitants; today, the residential population of Luxembourg is more than 550,000.

But this increase has not been steady and involves four major periods:

  • a period of decline during the first four decades of the 20th century;
  • a (moderate) baby boom between 1950 and 1960;
  • a very rapid decline, which stabilised between 1960 and 1980;
  • a resumption of growth since the 1990s due to higher birth rates and a rise in immigration associated with a favourable economic situation.

Between 1980 and 2010, the resident population increased by about 147,000 people. This population growth is rather exceptional as it is mainly due to immigration. However, nationals saw their numbers stagnate.

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, today there are more than 170 different nationalities.

  • A population consisting of more than a third of non-Luxembourgers, that proportion exceeding 68% in the capital;
  • a linguistic system based on the simultaneous use of three languages, Luxembourgish, the national language, French and German;
  • a geographical situation which means that Luxembourg is less than half an hour’s drive from France, Belgium or Germany,

such are the characteristics that have allowed the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to become a meeting point, a place to exchange ideas and experiences and a land of dialogue.

In addition to the foreign residents, representing 46% of the population in 2015, there are also more than 167.000 German, French and Belgian cross-border employees who commute every day and not to forget, some 10,000 international civil servants working in the European institutions.

It is the Portuguese, accounting for some 37% of foreign nationals, who form the largest foreign community in Luxembourg. In second place there are the French with 14%, then the Italians, Belgians and Germans.

The result is a great mix of nationalities and cultures, which is reflected in all aspects of society, whether in restaurants, the arts, entertainment, sports, etc.

For additional information on our population and demography, please visit this interesting segment on the official portal of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.